Skin Integrity


Pressure Ulcers (Bed Sores)                                                                                                 

Provides information on how pressure ulcers form, what they look like, complications, prevention, treatment.

Eldercare at Home: Chapter 12 - Skin Problems                                                            

This book chapter contains information on a number of geriatric skin problems but also includes a section on pressure ulcers. Information includes tips for avoiding pressure ulcers and ideas for overcoming issues that impair the ability to prevent pressure ulcers (ex: individuals who are difficult to reposition).

Myth Busting: The Skin Care Issue                        

Features facts and fiction about skin care in a colorful, easy-to-read format.


Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk
Scroll down to the “General Assessment Series” box. In the upper righthand corner, click on “Click to view”. Scroll down to “Issue 5: Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk”.

The Braden Scale, a tool used to measure risk of pressure sore development for patients. Also includes information on why pressure ulcer assessment is important, best tools, target population, validity and reliability, and strengths and limitations.


(Stotts, N. A. & Gunningberg, L. (2007). How to Try This: Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk. American Journal of Nursing, 107(11), 40-48.)


GeroNurse Online-Pressure Ulcers and Skin Tears
To the right of “Evidence-Based Geriatric Topics”, select “Pressure Ulcers & Skin Tears” from the pulldown menu.

This website provides a good overview of pressure ulcer and skin tears assessment and prevention, treatment, and evaluation with in the nursing framework.

Reducing High Risk Pressure Ulcers: Implementation Guide

Provides access to the implementation guide for goal 4 of Advancing Excellence in America’s Nursing Homes, a campaign to improve quality of life for nursing home residents. Includes objectives and approaches to implementation.

A New Model to Identify Shared Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers and Frailty in Older Adults

This article uses the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to discuss pressure ulcers in frail older adults. Pressure ulcers and frailty are defined and prevalence and incidence figures are reviewed. The connection is made between pressure ulcers and frailty using a model of shared risk factors and these medical syndromes are described as a synergistic relationship. In addition, the relevance to practice is discussed.

Module on Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Available through UCLA’s Borun Center.


World Council of Enterostomal Therapists

This link is the homepage of the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists. It offers information for professionals caring for patients with draining wounds, fistulas, stomas, and incontinence.

Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society

This is the homepage for the Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nurses Society. The site offers the latest information, publications, and educational resources on wound, ostomy, and continence care. Certification programs are also available.

National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel                                                                                                                                                                                                

The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) is an independent not-for-profit professional organization dedicated to the prevention and management of pressure ulcers.  Formed in 1987, the NPUAP Board of Directors is composed of leading experts from different health care disciplines, all of whom share a commitment to the prevention and management of pressure ulcers.

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  • Last modified on December 4, 2013